Economists love to repeat (over and over) that incentives matter. This leads to one way of examining differences in educational achievement by investigating differences in the return to education among different people. The logic goes as follows: If people like me don’t tend to land high-paying or satisfying jobs after completing some level of education, then why would I expend the resources to attain that education level? In short, for some people, the costs of attaining higher levels of education may exceed the benefits. This is a really simple model of decision making, so it is worth asking: Is this really how people make decisions in the real world?